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// This is the master file for the MMP.  It is formatted as a C header file to
// make it possible to include it into C programs, but it contains the whole
// documentation on how to implement a compliant server/client.
// It should be noted that the MMP is currently in development stage and is
// very likely to change in the future.  Keep that in mind when developing your
// clients.  Whenever a new change to this specification is added, it will be
// documented at the end of this file.  Look there if you were already familiar
// with MMP and just want to see what has changed.
// MMP is the protocol Matanza servers and clients talk.  It is being designed
// with the following goals:
// 1. Making it possible to use Matanza proxies, reducing the bandwidth at the
//    server.  That should help it scale very much.
// 2. Making it possible to implement artificial inteligence to run outside of
//    the Matanza process.  This way, multiple implementations of artificial
//    inteligence might be connected to the same server, regardless of the
//    programming languages they were written on.
// 3. Help others implement different clients to the Matanza game.  Specially,
//    Sergio Garcia, who said he would soon begin to work on a graphical
//    Java-based client.
// MMP has not been designed to be human-readable.  Doing so would increase the
// bandwidth required by MMP-talking programs.
// On the other hand, one of the design goals of MMP was that it should be
// fairly easy to implement a MMP-speaking program.  This means that it doesn't
// use any complicated compression algorithms of any sort.
// As you will see, it is possible to control multiple ships in multiple
// universes (once multiple universes gets supported in Matanza) using only one
// connection.  This adds little complexity, but makes it possible to have
// multiple clients connected to one proxy, having that proxy use only one
// connection to the central server.
// In this initial version of MMP, TCP/IP connections are used.  However, it
// should be noted that there is many information that should be sent over UDP
// rather than TCP (while it is important to send other using TCP).  In the
// future, two programs talking MMP will probably use both one TCP connection
// for important messages and one UDP connection for the rest.  For example,
// information about the positions of the objects is better sent over UDP,
// while messages such as the fact that a given ship controled by the client
// has been hit should be sent over TCP.  We are aiming at making this work
// completely over TCP first, avoiding the complexity of using both TCP and
// UDP, to eventually start sending messages through the appropriate channel.
// All the messages in MMP begin with a single character, followed by any
// relevant arguments.  Basically, both the server and the client are at
// special defined states and the messages they may receive depend on this
// information.
// In MMP, unless said otherwise, all numbers are sent as two bytes, the first
// being the most important (for example, the number 12345 would be sent as the
// numbers 48 and 57, since 48 * 256 + 57 = 12345).  Strings are sent as
// 0-terminated strings.  For example, to send the string "ABC", one would send
// the numbers 65 (`A'), 66 (`B'), 67 (`C') and 0.
// The messages designed to be sent by the server have been prefixed with
// `MMP_SERVER_'.  Those sent by the client begin with `MMP_CLIENT_'.  They
// have been grouped depending on the state on which they are allowed.
// We will first describe the messages sent by the server and then those sent
// by the clients.
// The initial states for both servers and clients once a connection is
// established is Initial.

// As said above, MMP is still undergoing heavy development.  As you will see,
// there are some things that are not yet possible to do with the current
// specification.
// The following is provided as a list of things that you will be able to do
// with MMP, but not yet.
// - Add support for teams
//    None of the messages has the concept of teams.  It should be possible to
//    play with teams.
// - Add chat functionality
//    It should be possible to send public and private messages through MMP.
// - Allow the client to control the ships
//    In the current specification, the client has no way to specify actions
//    for the ships it controls.
// - Complete this list
//    There are still a few things missing, that we must add to the list.  If
//    you come up with any, email Alejandro so he adds it.

// The following messages can be sent by the server when the client is in the
// Initial state (that is, right after the connection is established).
// Actually, the server will wait for a MMP_CLIENT_INITIAL_ID before sending
// any of these replies.

#define MMP_SERVER_CLOSE                                                  0

//       An error took place at the server.  The client's state is set to
//       Close.

#define MMP_SERVER_INITIAL_FULL                                           1

//       Indicates that the server is currently full.  The client should try to
//       connect latter.  The server must close the connection after sending
//       this message.

#define MMP_SERVER_INITIAL_CONNECTED                                      2

//       Indicates that the operation was successful and sets the client on the
//       Default state.  This message contains two strings used to identify the
//       server.  The first is the server's name (such as "MatanzaServer") and
//       the second is its version (such as "0.11").
//       A server can only send this message after MMP_CLIENT_INITIAL_ID has
//       been received.

// The following messages can be sent by the server when the client is in the
// Default state:

//       This message indicates that the server is about to close the
//       connection.  The client enters the Close state.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS                                  100

//       The server uses this message to begin sending information about one of
//       the universes that the client is subscribed to.  
//       A simple frame contains the whole information about the state of the
//       world.
//       This message has two arguments.  The first is the id of the universe
//       it will begin to update.  The second argument is a vector with the
//       following information for every ship on that universe:
//           pos_x - The position of the ship in the X coordinate.
//           pos_y - The position of the ship in the Y coordinate.
//           ang   - The current angle of the ship.
//       The client must know how many ships every universe has and how they
//       are ordered.
//       This message sets the client's state to Frame.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_SHIPADD_CLIENT                                 2

//       This message is sent by the server when the client succesfully adds a
//       ship to a universe.  The message has the ship's id (a number) as its
//       arguments.
//       For every MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPADD request, the server will
//       reply with either a MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_SHIPADD_CLIENT or a
//       MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_SHIPADD_FAILURE message.  This replies will be
//       sent in the same order as the MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPADD requests
//       are received.
//       The new ship is added at the beginning of the list of ships for the
//       universe.  Note that the order of this list is the same as used for
//       the arguments to the MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS message.
//       See MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPADD for more information.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_SHIPADD_FAIL                                   3

//       If an attempt to add a ship to a universe (indicated by the client
//       sending a MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPADD message) fails, the server
//       will send this reply.  The client enters the ShipAddFailure state.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_SHIPADD_OTHER                                  4

//       This message is sent by the server to notify the client that someone
//       else has added a ship to one of the universes' the client is
//       subscribed to.
//       The new ship is added at the beginning of the list of ships for the
//       universe.  Note that the order of this list is the same as used for
//       the arguments to the MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS message.
//       The message has the universe id (number) and the player's name
//       (string) as its arguments.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_DAMAGE                                         5

//       Whenever one of the ships controled by the client is damaged, the
//       server will send this message.  The argument is a number with the
//       ammount of damage.  It is the clients' responsability to keep track of
//       its ships' damage to know when they are finally destroyed.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_JOIN_OK                                        6

//       This message does not modified the client's state.
//       It is sent by the server as a reply to a MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_JOIN
//       that resulted in a successful subscription to a universe.  The message
//       has a list with the names for all the ships currently in the universe
//       as its only argument.  Finally, when no more ships are left, it sends
//       an empty string.
//       Note that the order of the ships is relevant as it is in this order
//       that their information will be sent in MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS.
//       See MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_JOIN for more information.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_JOIN_FAIL                                      7

//       This message indicates that an attempt to subscribe to a universe
//       (sent by the client using the MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_JOIN message)
//       failed.  The client is then set on the JoinFailure state.

#define MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_SHIPRM                                         8

//       This message is used by the server to inform the client that a
//       particular ship in a given universe has left.  The client's state is
//       not modified, but it should record the change in the list of ships for
//       the universe, as further MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS messages will
//       not contain any information for the ship.
//       The message's arguments are the universe's id (two bytes) and the
//       ship's name.

// The following messages are sent when the client is in the JoinFailure state.
// They are used by the server to indicate the reasons why the request failed.
// All of them set the client's state to the Default:

#define MMP_SERVER_JOINFAIL_UNEXISTANT                                    0

//       This message is sent when the client attempts to join to a universe
//       that does not exist.

#define MMP_SERVER_JOINFAIL_AUTH                                          1

//       This message will be defined in the future.
// The following messages are valid when the client is in the ShipAddFailure
// state.  They all bring the client back to the Default state.

#define MMP_SERVER_SHIPADDFAIL_UNEXISTANT                                 1

//       The universe specified does not exist.

#define MMP_SERVER_SHIPADDFAIL_FULL                                       2


#define MMP_SERVER_SHIPADDFAIL_BADNAME                                    3

//       This error happens when the name for the ship has problems.  A string
//       describing the error with the name specified is sent.
// The following are the messages that the client can receive during the Close
// state.  The server must always close the connection after sending any of
// this messages.

#define MMP_SERVER_CLOSE_SHUTDOWN                                         0

//       Indicates that the server is closing the connection because it is
//       being shutdown.

#define MMP_SERVER_CLOSE_SYSERROR                                         1

//       Indicates that the server is closing the connection because it came
//       across some error during a system call.  A string describing the error
//       must be provided.

#define MMP_SERVER_CLOSE_MMPERROR                                         2

//       Indicates that the reason for the server to be closing the connection
//       is that it violated the rules set forth in this documentation and
//       attempted to do something ilegal.  A string describing the error must
//       be provided.

#define MMP_SERVER_CLOSE_CLIENT                                           3

//       Indicates that the server is closing the connection because it was
//       asked by the client to do so.

#define MMP_SERVER_FRAME_DONE                                             1

//       Sends the client to the default state.  This message has no arguments.
//       This is used by the server to indicate that no more objects are
//       available in a given universe.

#define MMP_SERVER_FRAME_BULLET                                           2

//       This message is used to pass information about a given bullet.  The
//       message has two numbers as its arguments, for the x and the y position
//       of the bullet.

// Right after the connection is established, the client must send the
// following message:

#define MMP_CLIENT_INITIAL_ID                                             1

//       This is almost always the first message sent once a connection is
//       established.
//       The message carries two arguments, both strings.  The first identifies
//       the client (for example, "Matanza Artificial Inteligence Client") and
//       the second provides its version (for example, "0.12").
//       After sending this message, the client must wait for a reply from the
//       server.  This reply can be any of the MMP_SERVER_INITIAL_* messages or
//       The clients must wait for a reply to this message before sending any
//       other messages.

// The following messages can be sent by the client when the server is in the
// Default state:

#define MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_JOIN                                           1

//       This message is sent by the client to subscribe to a universe.  The
//       only argument it takes is the universe's id.

#define MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPADD                                        2

//       This message indicates that the client wants to add a ship to a
//       universe.  The message has two arguments, the first being a number
//       identifying the universe and the second being the name of the player.

#define MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPEVENT                                      1

//       This message is used by the client to inform the server of one event
//       for a ship.  Examples of events are shoting bullets, turning,
//       acelerating and so one.
//       The message takes the ship's id (number) as its argument and sets the
//       server of the ShipEvent state, on which further information about the
//       event is sent.

// Last changes to this specification:
// The following is a list of changes to this specification.
//   01/Mar/2001:
//     - Added message MMP_CLIENT_DEFAULT_SHIPEVENT.
//     - Modified the description for MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS again.  It
//       should be okay now.
//     - Added the messages allowed in the Frame state.
//     - Added MMP_CLIENT_INITIAL_ID and modified the semantics of establishing
//       a connection.
//     - Added a list of missing things.
//   28/Feb/2001:
//     - Modified the arguments of the MMP_SERVER_DEFAULT_FRAME_SHIPS message.
//     - Changed PROTOCOL to MMP everywhere.

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